By Rev. Katie Solter, Religion Faculty and Associate Chaplain
Becoming Dr. King’s “Beloved Community”
Religious scholar Karen Armstrong writes: “Religions have functioned throughout human history to inspire and justify actions that range from heinous crimes against humanity to nearly unfathomable acts of compassion, courage, and generosity.” In my role as a religion teacher and chaplain at St. Mark’s, dedicated to the work of building an anti-racist school, I strive to provide a balanced representation of religions. We must understand religion’s complicity in the “heinous crimes” committed often in the name of religion’s presumed superiority of the dominant group throughout history, while exploring the important role religion plays in fighting oppression and promoting the values of non-violence, social justice, and equality as part of the “unfathomable acts of compassion, courage and generosity” religion inspires.
The Role of Religion on January 6, 2021
The events of January 6, 2021 serve as a poignant example of these contrasting ideas. That morning we woke up to the news of Jon Ossoff’s and Raphael Warnock’s historic victories in Georgia’s run-off Senate elections, with Ossoff becoming the first Jewish Senator and Warnock, the first African-American Senator elected in the state of Georgia. In St. Mark’s required religion class, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (JCI), we discussed the rise in anti-Semitism this year and Jon Ossoff’s run for senate told a familiar story of how Ossoff’s opponents deployed anti-Semitic tropes and stereotypes to undermine his candidacy. An infamous campaign advertisement, uncovered by the Jewish newspaper The Forward, exaggerated his features to make him look more stereotypically Jewish. Yet, on this occasion, these age-old tactics failed as Ossoff achieved his improbable victory in a traditionally conservative state.
At the same time, Rev. Rapheal Warnock’s election highlights the role the Black church continues to play in the political arena given the record turnout in Georgia for Black voters. As Rev. Dr. Cynthia Hale writes: “Since the end of the Civil War, the Black church has been a critical institution within the pro-democracy movement. Collectively serving as a general for justice, the Black church continues to be a refuge for the oppressed and a force with which to be reckoned on the issue of racial and economic equality through the power of the ballot.” Senator Warnock is senior pastor at Ebenezer Baptist church in Atlanta, where Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. once served and his election represents a victory for the work Dr. King and the Black church have played in promoting the spiritual and social justice principles of Christian belief.
The election of these two candidates alone–as examples of the important role religious understanding plays in the current political landscape– provided pertinent discussion topics in a JCI class at St. Mark’s. As we all know, later that afternoon, this day of historic victory for Jews and Black Christians in Georgia, quickly turned to a day of infamy. The attacks on the Capitol building highlighted the role religion can play in perpetuating hatred and White supremacist ideology, with Christian flags and banners waving side by side with anti-semitic and racist ones. In just a few short hours, we have two milestone events in our political history that illustrate the sometimes divergent, even contradictory roles religion can play. My job as a teacher of religion in an historical and educational moment that calls upon us to create an anti-racist school is to finds ways to place these moments in a broader intellectual context so my students can have a more balanced and nuanced understanding of religion’s complex legacy.(more…)
By Ms. Jeanna Cook, Classics Department Head
What’s Old is New: Changes in the Classics Department at St. Mark’s School
I know what you’re thinking, how could anything related to the Classics be new? You are right to assume that our body of evidence about the ancient world is limited to that which has survived. Fresh discoveries pulled out of the sands of Egypt or deaccessioned from a private collection are few and far between. The evolution, the excitement, and the new in Classics is in the reinterpretation of the material we have had in hand for thousands of years. Recently this reinterpretation has asked better questions about what is missing in order to form new understandings. What evidence of everyday lives in the ancient world has been passed over in favor of the historical record of Roman elites? Whose voices are missing in the historical, or written, record? How can we use the archaeological record to listen for these voices?
In response to the St. Mark’s: Actions to Be An Anti-Racist School petition and in alliance with the voices amplified by the BlackAtSM Instagram account, we introduced a new textbook, Suburani in the Classics Department over the summer. The readings in this text represent the real and imagined voices of the majority non-elite population, with numbers in the millions, who both benefited from and suffered under the dominance of Roman Imperium.
The writers of Suburani by HandsUp Education developed this textbook in response to student interest in the lives of everyday people in Roman society. Most texts written for the Latin students of the past century have relied upon the historical record to tell the experience of Roman culture from the perspective of Roman boys and men. These characters are literate, involved in the conflicts of Rome’s political sphere, and authors and consumers of the literature and philosophy of their time. In contrast, Suburani couples the limited extant record of everyday people with the artifacts of everyday life. In this text, physical clues, such as amphorae that carried olive oil from Hispania to Rome, stamped roof tiles from large apartment blocks, and graffiti inscribed on neighborhood walls, develop the stories of the individuals who left a less verbose record of their lives in the first century CE.(more…)
By Cadence Summers, VI Form
Nazi Propaganda and its Effect on the United States
An unknown man heils a banner of President George Washington and two banners embroidered with the Swastika on either side. On February 20, 1939, seven months before the start of World War II and George Washington’s birthday, 20,000 Americans gathered in Madison Square Garden, the world’s most famous arena, in support of the Nazi party. For decades, the narrative that the United States was a strictly anti-Nazi nation in the years leading up to and during World War II has eclipsed that of the much more sinister truth. In the years immediately prior to the United States entrance into World War II on December 7, 1941, there were at least 100,000 Nazi sympathizers in the United States. White supremacist groups such as the KKK, who’s numbers were near four million in the 1920s, guaranteed millions more American antisemites and possible Nazi sympathizers. Nazi Germany ruled much of American society, in addition to the entire population of Germany, with an iron fist of deception and its most dangerous weapon: Propaganda.
Hitler regarded propaganda as a “truly terrible weapon in the hands of an expert.” The man he appointed to oversee the creation and dispersion of propaganda proved that it can be as lethal as machine guns and torpedos. Joseph Goebbels headed the Reich Ministry for Propaganda and Public Enlightenment (RMVP) for the entirety of the Holocaust. The Third Reich’s prolific propaganda was due to his shrewd and wicked genius. His tactics for propaganda creation and dispersion increased its efficacy as he, and his team, including visual artists, writers, and filmmakers, created propaganda that would appeal to each man, woman, and child in Germany. The RMVP targeted German adults with countless antisemitic newspapers and posters that vilified everyone who did not fit the ideal Nazi narrative, from Jews to communists to the Allies. Nazis isolated and indoctrinated children using a system of altered school curriculums, children’s books, summer camps, and youth organizations. Often children were indoctrinated before their parents because they were young, naïve, and impressionable and would therefore mold more easily to the new onslaught of Nazi ideology. Nazi propagandists believed that if children were indoctrinated, then hesitant parents who grew up with Jews and were friends with them would be persuaded to align themselves with Nazi ideology in order to protect themselves and their children from the regime.(more…)